Bismuth: Cures Cramping In The Stomach Due To Diarrhoea
- Brand name Kaopectate, Peptobismol
- Composition Bismuth subsalicylate
- Popularity level 7
- Bismuth is an antidiarrhoeal drug that acts by decreasing PG synthesis in the intestinal mucosa due to which chloride secretion and loss of water from the intestines deceases.
- Dosage It is taken as a suspension, 60 ml in every 6 hours.
- Price Kaopectate costs $14.00 per pill or unit.
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Purpose Of Stomach Ulcer Surgery
Peptic ulcers can cause pain, stomach discomfort, abdominal cramps, decreased appetite, hematemesis, gastrointestinal bleeding, iron deficiency anemia , and malnutrition.
Generally, the condition can be effectively treated with medication and lifestyle changes, rather than with surgical intervention. Smoking and alcohol use can contribute to stomach ulcers, and stopping these habits can help an ulcer heal. Sometimes dietary modifications, like avoiding spicy foods, can help control symptoms.
Surgical management may be needed for complications of peptic ulcer disease or for treatment of a stomach ulcer that doesn’t improve despite conservative management.
Issues that may warrant surgical intervention for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease include:
These issues can cause persistent and serious health problems. Stomach ulcer surgery would be done to alleviate your symptoms and prevent consequences to your overall health.
What Tests Will Be Done To Diagnose A Peptic Ulcer
Endoscopy. An upper endoscopy exam is expedient because allows healthcare providers to see inside your digestive tract and also take a tissue sample to analyze in the lab. The test is done by passing a thin tube with a tiny camera attached down your throat and into your stomach and duodenum. Youll have medication to numb your throat and help you relax during the test. Your healthcare provider may use the endoscope to take a tissue sample to test for signs of mucous damage, anemia, H. pyloriinfection or malignancy. If they take a sample, you wont feel it.
Imaging tests. Imaging tests to look inside the stomach and small intestine include:
- Upper GI series. An upper GI X-ray exam examines the stomach and duodenum through X-rays. Its less invasive than an endoscopy. For the X-ray, youll swallow a chalky fluid called barium, which will coat your esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The barium helps your digestive organs show up better in black and white images.
- CT scan. Your healthcare provider might recommend a CT scan if they need to see your organs in more detail. A CT scan can show complications such as a perforation in the stomach or intestinal wall. For the test, youll lie on a table inside a scanner machine while X-rays are taken. You may drink or have an injection with contrast fluid to make your organs show up better in images.
Tests for H. pylori. Your healthcare provider might want to test you separately for H. pylori infection. Tests may include:
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What If A Peptic Ulcer Doesn’t Heal
Most often, medicines heal a peptic ulcer. If an H. pylori infection caused your peptic ulcer, you should finish all of your antibiotics and take any other medicines your doctor prescribes. The infection and peptic ulcer will heal only if you take all medicines as your doctor prescribes.
When you have finished your medicines, your doctor may do another breath or stool test in 4 weeks or more to be sure the H. pylori infection is gone. Sometimes, H. pylori bacteria are still present, even after you have taken all the medicines correctly. If the infection is still present, your peptic ulcer could return or, rarely, stomach cancer could develop. Your doctor will prescribe different antibiotics to get rid of the infection and cure your peptic ulcer.
Tips For Living With Ulcers
- If you have an ulcer, be careful when choosing over-the-counter pain relievers. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen can irritate an ulcer and prevent a bleeding ulcer from healing. Avoid powdered headache medication, too. It usually contains powdered aspirin. Your best choice may be acetaminophen, which doesnât cause or worsen stomach ulcers.
- Don’t overdose on iron supplements. You may need them if you have bleeding ulcers, but taking too much can irritate your stomach lining and the ulcer. Ask the doctor how much iron you need.
- Learn how to manage stress. Relaxation techniques like deep breathing, guided imagery, and moderate exercise can help ease stress and promote healing.
- Avoid foods that irritate your stomach. Use common sense: If it upsets your stomach when you eat it, avoid it. Everyone is different, but spicy foods, citrus fruits, and fatty foods are common irritants.
- Stop smoking. Heavy smokers are more likely to get duodenal ulcers than nonsmokers.
- Practice moderation. Drinking lots of alcohol has been shown to contribute to ulcers, so keep your intake to a minimum.
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How Common Are Stomach Ulcers
Stomach ulcers are very common in Western countries. In the United States, there are about 4 million cases per year. Some estimates say that 1 in 10 people will have one at some point in their lives. Thats because many of the causes that contribute to stomach ulcers are common in Western life. Fortunately, these causes are usually easy to trace and to reverse, giving ulcers a chance to heal and your stomach lining a chance to repair.
Bleeding Peptic Ulcer: Treatment
A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or duodenum . Your ulcer is bleeding or at high risk of bleeding. This means that you need treatment right away. Treatment can include medicines. It may also include a procedure such as endoscopy, angiography, or surgery. Your provider will work with you to decide which treatments are best for you. Read on to learn more about each type of treatment.
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Things You Should Know
- Go to your doctor if you’re experiencing bleeding ulcer symptoms like upper abdominal pain, nausea, and blood in your vomit or stool.
- Your doctor will prescribe medication that blocks acid production to heal the ulcer. Take the medication as directed.
- For serious bleeding ulcers, you may need to have a surgical procedure to close the ulcer and stop the bleeding.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Bleeding Ulcer
Bleeding ulcers dont always cause pain. Sometimes the first signs of a bleeding ulcer are signs of anemia. These include:
- Dizziness or lightheadedness.
You might have a heavier bleed if you notice:
- Blood in your poop, or black poop that resembles tar.
These symptoms require urgent medical attention.
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Risks And Possible Complications Of Treatment
A hole in your upper digestive tract
Risks of sedative or anesthesia used
The ulcer coming back
Hole in a blood vessel
Risks of sedative or anesthesia used
The ulcer coming back
Damage to nearby organs and blood vessels
Long-term digestive problems such as irregular bowel movements
Risks of anesthesia
Noninvasive Tests For Gastrointestinal Bleeding
When ulcers are suspected, the doctor will order tests to detect bleeding. These may include a rectal exam, complete blood count, and fecal occult blood test . The FOBT tests for hidden blood in stools. Typically, the patient is asked to supply up to six stool specimens in a specially prepared package. A small quantity of feces is smeared on treated paper, which is then exposed to hydrogen peroxide. If blood is present, the paper turns blue.
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Can Peptic Ulcers Be Prevented
Doctors arent sure how H. pylori bacteria spread from person to person. The bacteria have been found in saliva , so kissing may be one way. They also may spread through food, water, or contact with vomit thats infected with the bacteria.
Regular use of NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal problems and bleeding in some people. Acetaminophen does not cause stomach ulcers and is a good alternative to NSAIDs.
As with many infections, washing your hands well and often is an important part of ulcer prevention. This is extra important after you use the bathroom and before you eat. And take good care of your body by exercising regularly and not smoking or drinking.
Treating Helicobacter Pylori Infection
If your stomach ulcers caused by a Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection, youll be given:
- a course of antibiotics
- a medication called a proton pump inhibitor
This is also recommended if its thought your stomach ulcers caused by a combination of an H. pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs .
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When Should I Go To Er
Seek emergency care if you have:
- Severe pain that doesnt go away.
- Signs of blood in your poop or bloody vomit.
- Signs of severe blood loss, such as paleness and faintness.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Stomach ulcers are common and treatable, but they should be taken seriously. Even when they dont cause symptoms, they arent a good sign. A stomach ulcer means that your natural stomach acid is overwhelming your protective stomach lining. Thats a situation that can only get worse if it isnt managed. Lifestyle changes may help, but youll still need to treat the underlying cause. Its probably either NSAID use or a common bacterial infection. Your healthcare provider can help prescribe the right medicines for your condition.
What Are The Complications Of Peptic Ulcers
Ulcers can cause serious problems if you dont get treatment.
The most common problems include:
- Bleeding. As an ulcer wears away the muscles of the stomach or duodenal wall, blood vessels may be hurt. This causes bleeding.
- Hole . Sometimes an ulcer makes a hole in the wall of your stomach or duodenum. When this happens, bacteria and partly digested food can get in. This causes infection and redness or swelling .
- Narrowing and blockage . Ulcers that are found where the duodenum joins the stomach can cause swelling and scarring. This can narrow or even block the opening to the duodenum. Food cant leave your stomach and go into your small intestine. This causes vomiting. You cant eat properly.
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Flat Spots Or Clean Based Ulcers
No benefit from endoscopic hemostasis, since patients with these endoscopic findings have a very low rebleeding rate 7% and 3 % respectively on medical therapy alone . The exception is large ulcers with both a flat spot and another SRH such as a clot or NBVV. In DUP studies of such patients with 2 SRH in large ulcers, arterial blood flow beneath the 2 SRH and between them was detected in 63% of such patients and to prevent rebleeding, both SRH and between the SRH in the artery, required endoscopic treatment to significantly reduce the rebleeding risk.
Antibiotic And Combination Drug Regimens For The Treatment Of H Pylori
The established treatment for H pylori infection is a combination of antibiotics plus a PPI. Current standard therapy includes three medicines, two antibiotics plus a PPI, called triple therapy. Quadruple therapy refers to four medicines, in various combinations. For any of these regimens, the medicines may be taken in stages, one after another. This is called sequential therapy. Medicines may also be taken at the same time. This is called concomitant therapy. Due to the growing resistance to certain antibiotics and areas where standard therapy cure rates are somewhat low, various combinations and timing of medications are now under study.
Reported cure rates for H pylori range from 70% to 90% after triple therapy regimen treatment. Eradication rates are higher for when bismuth subsalicylate is added to the regimen. The standard treatment regimen uses two antibiotics and a PPI:
Patients typically take combination treatment for 10 to 14 days. A 7-day regimen is another option, but some research suggests that 14 days of therapy with antibiotics and PPIs is more effective at eradicating H pylori. When quadruple therapy is taken at the same time , cure rates appear similar to when the medicines are taken sequentially.
Combination products are available.
Follow-up testing to check that the bacteria have been eliminated should be done no sooner than 4 weeks after therapy is completed. Test results before that time may not be accurate.
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Types Of Stomach Ulcers
Ulcers can develop in various parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Contrary to popular belief, research shows that men develop duodenal ulcers more often than any other kind, including stomach ulcers. On the other hand, the opposite is true for women: They tend to develop more stomach ulcers and fewer ulcers of the duodenal.
Many doctors refer to stomach ulcers simply as peptic ulcers. A few other types of ulcers and names that ulcers sometimes go by include:
When To Call A Healthcare Provider
While stomach ulcers can be painful and uncomfortable, theyre rarely life-threatening. But if you notice changes in appetite, unexplained weight loss, vomiting blood, dark black or bloody stools, or trouble breathing, call a healthcare provider or seek immediate medical attention. These serious symptoms could be signs of perforation , internal bleeding, or a blockage, which all require emergency care.
Complications Of Peptic Ulcers
Left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in severe complications and emergencies.
- Internal bleeding You can have bleeding in your stomach, esophagus, or duodenum when the ulcer opens a blood vessel. Ulcers can cause bleeding that occurs slowly over time or quickly, possibly resulting in hemorrhaging that can be life-threatening due to shock. Sometimes you may not notice a bleeding ulcer until you become anemic, a condition in which your body lacks red blood cells because of inadequate iron. This occurs when ulcers cause chronic, low-grade blood loss.
- A hole, or perforation, in the stomach wall You can develop a perforated ulcer, which means it has eaten through your stomach or intestinal wall.
- Obstruction This is when you have swelling or scarring related to your ulcer that is preventing your food from being digested properly.
The signs that you are having an ulcer emergency are:
- Blood in vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds
- Increasing pain
- Mental confusion
- Severe abdominal distension
If you think you or someone you know is having an ulcer emergency, seek immediate medical attention.
How Do U Know If You Have Ulcers
The most common symptom is a burning sensation or pain in the middle of your abdomen between your chest and belly button. Typically, the pain will be more intense when your stomach is empty, and it can last for a few minutes to several hours. Other common signs and symptoms of ulcers include: dull pain in the stomach.
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How Are Peptic Ulcers Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will look at your past health and give you a physical exam. You may also have some tests.
Imaging tests used to diagnose ulcers include:
- Upper GI series or barium swallow. This test looks at the organs of the top part of your digestive system. It checks your food pipe , stomach, and the first part of the small intestine . You will swallow a metallic fluid called barium. Barium coats the organs so that they can be seen on an X-ray.
- Upper endoscopy or EGD . This test looks at the lining of your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. It uses a thin lighted tube called an endoscope. The tube has a camera at one end. The tube is put into your mouth and throat. Then it goes into your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Your health care provider can see the inside of these organs. A small tissue sample can be taken. This can be checked for H. pylori.
You may also have the following lab tests to see if you have an H. pylori infection:
Can An Ulcer Be Cured
Ulcers, commonly referred to as ââGastric ulcersââ or ââPeptic ulcersââ are open sores whose developmental sites are stomach and duodenum. The treatment of ulcers depend upon its cause and it usually gets healed in a month or two. Recommended treatment involves medication such as Antibiotics and Proton Pump inhibitors in case of bacterial infection or the same in combination with NSAIDS.
Alternative medications include H2-receptor antagonists, antacids etc. In addition, avoiding stress, alcohol, smoking, spicy foods etc. may help.
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How Do Doctors Treat An Nsaid
If NSAIDs are causing your peptic ulcer and you dont have an H. pylori infection, your doctor may tell you to
- stop taking the NSAID
- reduce how much of the NSAID you take
- switch to another medicine that wont cause a peptic ulcer
Your doctor may also prescribe medicines to reduce stomach acid and coat and protect your peptic ulcer. Proton pump inhibitors , histamine receptor blockers, and protectants can help relieve pain and help your ulcer heal.
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What Are The Possible Complications Of Peptic Ulcer Disease
An ulcer left untreated may cause serious complications, including:
- Internal bleeding: While most people with ulcers wont have bleeding, this is the most common complication that can occur. A slow bleeding ulcer can cause anemia or even severe blood loss.
- Perforation: An ulcer that is continuously eroded by acid can eventually become a hole in the stomach or intestinal wall. This is intensely painful and also dangerous. It allows bacteria from the digestive tract to enter the abdominal cavity, which can lead to an infection of the abdominal cavity called peritonitis. From there, the infection is at risk of spreading to the rest of the body . This can lead to a life-threatening condition called .
- Obstruction: An ulcer in the pyloric channel, the narrow passageway that leads from the stomach into the duodenum, can become an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine. This can happen after the ulcer has healed. Ulcers that have gone through a healing process may build up scar tissue that enlarges them. An ulcer that is big enough to obstruct the small intestine can stall the digestive process, with numerous side effects.
- Stomach cancer: Some gastric ulcers can become malignant over time. This is more likely when your ulcer is caused by H. pylori infection. H. pylori is a contributing cause of gastric cancer, though fortunately this is uncommon.
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