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What Causes Crohn’s Disease And Ulcerative Colitis

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Signs And Symptoms Of Ulcerative Colitis

Crohn’s Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis Nursing | Crohn’s vs Colitis Chart Symptoms, Treatment

Recognizing the symptoms of ulcerative colitis is your first step toward knowing when your disease is in a flare and when to seek medical attention.

The symptoms of ulcerative colitis vary from person to person and about half of all ulcerative colitis patients experience mild symptoms. If you experience any of these symptoms, consult your healthcare provider.

  • Loose and urgent bowel movements

  • Persistent diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and blood in the stool

Ulcerative Colitis Vs Crohn’s Disease: What’s The Difference

Shadi Hamdeh, MD, is a board-certified gastroenterologist and an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Kansas Medical Center.

The two primary forms of inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitisare often lumped together. Both include symptoms of abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and an urgent need to defecate. However, some of their characteristics are very different.

This article discusses the similarities and differences between ulcerative colitis versus Crohn’s disease, including symptoms and treatments of both.

What Environmental Factors Contribute To Crohn’s Or Uc

Not everyone with these genes develops inflammatory bowel disease. Environmental factors may be necessary to trigger the immune overreaction in a susceptible person. Importantly, environmental factors alone are not enough to cause Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis.

It is not known which environmental factors trigger inflammatory bowel disease. This is an area of ongoing research.* Risk factors that have been studied include:

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You And Your Care Team Are In Control

While there is no cure for UCwhile also knowing it can progress and symptoms can get worse over timeits important to remember that you and your doctor can get your disease under control. Recognizing the signs early and getting treatment right away is key. Thats why having open conversations with your doctor and being prepared for every appointment is crucial to managing your UC.

Speak openly with your doctor about how much your UC is truly impacting you. Make a personal action plan to see how much of your time your disease is affecting and get customized steps to help you and your doctor get control of your disease.

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What Is Ulcerative Colitis

Understanding Crohns Disease

Ulcerative colitis causes inflammation only in the mucosal lining of the colon, thus not affecting the small intestine. Ulcerative colitis generally starts in the rectum and spreads from the rectum toward the first part of the colon in a steady progression.

The last one to two feet of the small intestine is called the ileum. As previously mentioned, ulcerative colitis does not affect the small intestine, so If ulcers and extensive inflammation are seen in the ileum, the colitis is likely due to Crohn’s disease.

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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Inflammatory Bowel Disease

IBD is a lifelong condition, but it shouldnt shorten your life expectancy. With proper treatment, you can prevent flares and have long periods of remission.

Managing a lifelong condition like IBD can be challenging. Its not unusual for people with IBD to become anxious or depressed. Seeing a mental health counselor can help.

Treating Crohns And Colitis

Its important to know that neither Crohns nor ulcerative colitis can be cured, though doctors will work with patients to manage symptoms. The two illnesses are generally treated with the same types of medication, although each patient may respond differently to the same drug. The goal of treatment is to reduce the inflammation, which in turn reduces symptoms, allows your body to repair damaged tissue, and helps slow the progression of the disease.

Today, many patients get a relatively new class of drugs, called biologics, which are live antibodies that are given to patients to help their immune cells fight the inflammation. Other classes of drugs include immunomodulators, which help tamp down the immune systems inflammatory response, and aminosalicylates, the oldest class of drugs, which are used to help keep the disease in remission. According to the Crohns and Colitis Foundation, immunomodulators can take up to six months to become fully effective, so doctors usually prescribe them along with fast-acting steroids that patients will ideally go off of once the immunomodulators reach their full potential. I absolutely think that with these new drugs, its a new era in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, says Dr. Cohen.

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What Other Problems Can Crohn’s Disease Cause

Crohn’s disease can cause other problems, including:

  • Intestinal obstruction, a blockage in the intestine
  • Fistulas, abnormal connections between two parts inside of the body
  • Abscesses, pus-filled pockets of infection
  • Malnutrition, when your body does not get the right amount of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients it needs
  • Inflammation in other areas of your body, such as your joints, eyes, and skin

How Are Crohns Disease And Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosed

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A diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease is made based on patient symptoms, physical examination, and laboratory and diagnostic testing. Stool evaluations to rule out infectious causes of inflammation are important. Laboratory tests might document evidence of blood loss.

A critical step in the patients evaluation involves examination of the intestine with a fiberoptic instrument called a colonoscope. Under light sedation the entire large intestine can be inspected and biopsies can be performed for microscopic evaluation. Usually the most terminal portion of the small intestine can be visualized as well. Occasionally, colonoscopy might be supplemented by X-Ray testing or even capsule endoscopy which has caught the publics imagination as the camera pill.

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Nutritional Supplements For Crohns

Food is ultimately the best source of nutrients, but Crohns usually causes deficiencies. Supplements can complement a balanced diet to help resolve these nutritional deficiencies. A few common ones associated with Crohns disease are:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Your nutritionist or health care professional may recommend supplementing these. They may also suggest the following:

These supplements also help support overall health as they support gut health and lower inflammation.

Treatments For Crohns And Colitis

Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are treated with generally the same types of medication, although patients may respond differently to the same drug. The goal of treatment is to reduce the inflammation, which in turn reduces symptoms, allows your body to repair damaged tissue, and helps slow the progression of the disease. There is no cure for Crohns or colitis, though UC patients can elect to have surgery to remove the colon, which will rid the body of the disease.

Today, many IBD patients take a class of drugs called biologics, which are live antibodies that help immune cells fight inflammation. Other classes of drugs include immunomodulators, which help tamp down the immune systems inflammatory response, and aminosalicylates, the oldest class of drugs, which are used to keep the disease in remission. A newer type of drug, called , are small molecule compounds that are absorbed into the bloodstream and can block multiple pathways of inflammation. JAK inhibitors are being used most frequently in patients with moderate to severe disease that have failed other therapies, Dr. Cohen says. There is an active area of research considering the potential use of JAK inhibitors as first line therapies, especially in patients with more severe disease due to their rapid onset of action.

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Differences Between Ulcerative Colitis And Crohns Disease

The differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are:

  • In Crohns disease, there are healthy parts of the intestine mixed in between inflamed areas. Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is continuous inflammation of the colon
  • Ulcerative colitis only affects the inner most lining of the colon while Crohns disease can occur in all the layers of the bowel walls

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How Can I Prevent Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn

While there isnt anything you can do to prevent IBD, certain dietary and lifestyle changes may control the symptoms. You can:

  • Eat smaller meals every two to four hours.
  • Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as meditation, movement like tai chi, listening to music or going for a walk.
  • Get plenty of sleep and stay physically active.
  • Keep a food diary to identify foods that trigger IBD flares. You may find you have a food intolerance, such as lactose intolerance. If so, your body has a harder time digesting certain foods, which causes stomach upset.
  • Reduce foods that irritate the intestines, such as those that are fibrous, spicy, greasy or made with milk. During flares, choose soft, bland foods that are less inflammatory.
  • Cut back on beverages containing caffeine, carbonation and alcohol. Drink more water to prevent dehydration.

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What Is The Prognosis For People With Crohns Disease

Most people with Crohns disease enjoy healthy, active lives. While there isnt a cure for Crohns disease, treatments and lifestyle changes can keep the disease in remission and prevent complications.

Lifestyle changes can include changes to your diet. People with Crohns disease often need to adapt their diets so that they get enough calories each day. Lactose intolerance can also be an issue for those with Crohns disease. You may need to avoid certain dairy products if you find that youre having issues with this dietary intolerance. You should also avoid smoking if you have Crohns disease. Smoking can only make your condition worse.

Your healthcare provider might recommend you receive preventative colonoscopies after youre diagnosed with Crohns disease. Talk to your provider about how often you should have colonoscopies and what your risks are for other medical conditions.

Oxidative Stress And Dna Damage

Pereira et al. reviewed evidence from numerous studies indicating that oxidative stress and DNA damage likely have a role in the pathophysiology of IBD. Oxidative DNA damage as measured by 8-OHdG levels was found to be significantly increased in patients with IBD compared to control patients, and in inflamed mucosa compared with non-inflamed mucosa.

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Complications Of Ulcerative Colitis

Complications of ulcerative colitis include:

  • primary sclerosing cholangitis where the bile ducts inside the liver become damaged
  • an increased risk of developing bowel cancer
  • poor growth and development in children and young people

Also, some of the medications used to treat ulcerative colitis can cause weakening of the bones as a side effect.

Who Is At Risk For Crohns Disease

Ulcerative Colitis versus Crohn’s Disease, Animation

There are certain factors which can raise your risk of Crohns disease:

  • Family history of the disease. Having a parent, child, or sibling with the disease puts you at higher risk.
  • Smoking. This may double your risk of developing Crohns disease.
  • Certain medicines, such as antibiotics, birth-control pills, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen. These may slightly increase your chance of developing Crohns.
  • A high-fat diet. This may also slightly increase your risk of Crohns.

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What Sets Them Apart

There are three key differences:

1. Location.

Ulcerative colitis affects only the large intestine.

But in Crohnâs disease, inflammation can appear anywhere in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the .

2. Continuous inflammation.

People with Crohnâs disease often have healthy areas in between inflamed spots. But with ulcerative colitis, there are no healthy areas in between inflamed spots.

3. Which layers are affected.

Because Crohnâs disease affects more of the GI tract, it can cause some problems that doctors don’t usually see in people who have ulcerative colitis. For instance:

  • Mouth sores between the gums and lower lip, or along the sides or bottom of the tongue.

What Are The Symptoms Of Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis symptoms often get worse over time. In the beginning, you may notice:

  • Diarrhea or urgent bowel movements.
  • Abdominal cramping.
  • Loss of fluids and nutrients.

Symptoms are similar in pediatric ulcerative colitis and may also include delayed or poor growth. Some ulcerative colitis symptoms in children can mimic other conditions, so it is important to report all symptoms to your pediatrician.

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Ibd Vs Ibs: Whats The Difference

IBD should not be confused with a similar-sounding condition called irritable bowel syndrome . Here are the differences between the two.

Inflammatory bowel disease is an umbrella term for diseases caused by an overreactive immune system that triggers chronic inflammation in the digestive system. There are two main kinds of IBD: ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease.

Symptoms: With UC, symptoms include abdominal pain and cramps, often on the lower left side diarrhea blood in the stool and more-urgent bowel movements. Crohns disease has many of the same symptoms as UC, but is more likely to cause abdominal pain and less likely to include rectal bleeding. It can also occur along with fevers, fatigue, and loss of appetite.

Irritable bowel syndrome is a gastrointestinal disorder in which your gut becomes more sensitive and the muscles of your digestive system have abnormal contractions that affect your bowel movements. Its not believed to be caused by a faulty immune system. Theres no inflammation involved, and severe complications or the need for surgery are uncommon. However, up to one-third of patients with IBD also have IBS. The two conditions are treated very differently.

Symptoms: Abdominal pain and cramps bloating and gas and changes in bowel movements, such as hard or loose stools, diarrhea, constipation, or a combination.

Involvement Of The Small Intestine Or The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Treatment For Crohn

Patients with extensive small-bowel involvement with a moderate or severe course should be treated with systemic corticosteroids . In parallel, remission maintenance therapy with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine should be started in case of failure or intolerance, methotrexate can be used instead . The use of infliximab should be considered in cases of nonresponse to treatment . If the upper GI tract is affected, a proton pump blocker such as esomeprazole should also be given . If the esophagus is affected, systemic glucocorticoids are the first line treatment .

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Healthi Wasnt Ashamed: Woman Shows Off Colostomy Bags In Stunning Photo

At the time they gave me my diagnosis I was told that this would not affect my quality of life, which could not be further from the truth in my severe case, Vihlen, 31, said. I continued to work for several months after being diagnosed but had to leave my physically demanding job due to the uncontrollable symptoms. Every day is different and I dont know how much energy I will have until I wake up in the morning, so making social plans is very difficult and more often than not I have to cancel at the last minute.

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Daily Life For People With Ibd

People with IBD lead useful and productive lives, even though they need to take medications. When they are not experiencing a flare-up of their disease, they feel quite well and are often free of symptoms.People with IBD can marry, enjoy sexual activity and have children. They can hold down jobs, care for families and enjoy sport and recreational activities.Even though there is currently no cure for IBD, medical therapy has improved the health and quality of life of most people with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. Research underway today may lead to further improvements in medical and surgical treatment, and even a cure.

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Other Genetic Risk Factors

  • The risk of Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis is substantially higher when both parents have IBD.

  • The disease is most common among people of eastern European backgrounds, including Jews of European descent.

  • There have been an increased number of cases reported in African-American populations in recent years.

Inflammation In Other Areas

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Some people with IBD have painful inflammation in other areas of the body, including:

  • joints of the fingers, hands, feet, ankles and knees
  • joints of the spine, including vertebrae and sacroiliac joints

Two specific skin problems that can occur as a result of IBD are:

  • pyoderma gangrenosum small, sunken ulcers on the skin
  • erythema nodosum painful, small, reddened nodules on the skin .

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Overview Of Crohns Disease

Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding Crohns disease can help you and your loved ones navigate the uncertainty that comes with a new diagnosis.

Calling all Crohns patients! Have you or a loved one been recently diagnosed? Or were you diagnosed with Crohns disease years ago but still dont fully understand your disease? Check out our latest video chat to learn more.

Video Length00:32:16

Video Chat: Crohns Disease 101

Crohns disease belongs to a group of conditions known as inflammatory bowel diseases, or IBD. It is named after Dr. Burrill B. Crohn, who first described the disease in 1932 along with his colleagues, Dr. Leon Ginzburg and Dr. Gordon D. Oppenheimer.

Video Length00:07:09

Crohns 101 Overview This introductory video provides information on potential causes, symptoms, treatment and overall management of Crohns disease.

What Foods Can You Eat On A Ulcerative Colitis Diet

If you have ulcerative colitis you may need to modify your diet to help manage the symptoms. There is not a single diet or meal plan that fits everyone with ulcerative colitis, and diets are individualized for each patient.

Depending on symptoms different types of diets may be recommended, such as:

  • a high-calorie diet

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