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What Does Ulcerative Colitis Mean

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What is Ulcerative Colitis?

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When To Get Medical Advice

You should see a GP as soon as possible if you have symptoms of ulcerative colitis and you have not been diagnosed with the condition.

They can arrange blood or stool sample tests to help determine what may be causing your symptoms.

If necessary, they can refer you to hospital for further tests.

If you have been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and think you may be having a severe flare-up, contact a GP or your care team for advice.

You may need to be admitted to hospital.

If you cannot contact your GP or care team, call NHS 111 or contact your local out-of-hours service.

Colitis And The Anatomy Of The Colon

The colon, or large intestine, is a hollow, muscular tube that processes waste products of digestion from the small intestine, removes water, and ultimately eliminates the remnants as feces through the anus. The colon is located within the peritoneum, the sac that contains the intestine, located in the abdominal cavity.

The colon is surrounded by many layers of tissue. The innermost layer of the colon is the mucosa that comes into contact with the waste products of digestion. The mucosa absorbs water and electrolytes back into the blood vessels that are located just below the surface in the submucosa. This is surrounded by a circular layer of muscles and then another outer layer of longitudinal muscles that run along the length of the colon. The muscles work together to rhythmically squeeze liquid waste from the cecum through the entire length of the colon. Water is gradually removed, turning the waste into the formed stool so that it is excreted out of the anus in solid form.

The colon frames the organs within the peritoneum, and its segments are named based on their location.

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Could My Symptoms Be Ibs

Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a different condition from IBD, although some of the symptoms are similar. Like Crohn’s and Colitis, IBS can cause abdominal pain, bloating and bouts of diarrhoea or constipation. However, it does not cause the type of inflammation typical of Colitis, and there is no blood loss with IBS.

Some people with Colitis may develop IBS-like symptoms, for example experiencing diarrhoea even when their Colitis is inactive. These symptoms may need slightly different treatment from their usual IBD symptoms. IBS is more common in people with IBD than in the general population.

If you develop diarrhoea with bleeding and abdominal pain, your doctor may suspect you have Colitis, particularly if you are a young adult or have a family history of Crohn’s or Colitis. You will need tests and physical examinations to confirm a diagnosis. See Tests and Investigations for IBD.

You may need to have tests repeated from time to time to check on your condition and how your treatment is working.

Some drug treatments may also require a series of blood tests and, occasionally, x-rays or scans to check for any potential side effects. Your specialist will avoid giving you any unnecessary tests or investigations.

You may need more regular colonoscopies when you have had Ulcerative Colitis for a long time to check for any signs of cancer.

When To Get Treatment

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An increase in inflammation causes a flare, and the nature of inflammation means that you should treat it as quickly as you can. Inflammation grows exponentially, because inflammation itself causes an increase in inflammation. The longer you leave it untreated, the worse it will get. In addition, untreated inflammation not only leads to the symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis, it can also increase your risk of developing complications such as colorectal cancer down the line. Pay attention to your symptoms, and visit your physician if you notice that they change or increase even a small amount.

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When To See A Doctor

Bleeding from the rectum or blood in or on the stool is never normal. It should always be brought up to a doctor. However, its not always an urgent situation.

If the cause of the bleeding is from a chronic condition , it should be discussed with your gastroenterologist.

In the case of new bleeding, see a doctor as soon as possible. Rectal bleeding that wont stop is a reason to go to the emergency department. Additionally, if you feel faint from blood loss, get to the emergency department right away or call an ambulance.

Abdominal pain can come and go with ongoing conditions, like Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis. Its important to discuss pain at doctors visits. However, if abdominal pain comes on suddenly and is severe, you should go to the emergency room or see a doctor right away.

In infants, caregivers will want to take the baby to see a pediatrician as soon as possible after seeing blood in the stool or around the rectum. Allergic colitis may be a common reason for bleeding, but its important to have a doctor check it out to make sure theres not a more serious reason.

Is It Important To Treat A Flare Early Or Is It Ok To Wait A Bit

Inflammation typically does not resolve without treatment and early intervention has a better outcome than waiting to treat. At an early stage of a flare, a more optimal baseline treatment is often enough to get the inflammation under control. If you wait, there is a greater risk that you might need drugs with greater side effects, such as oral steroids. By waiting, you will have to manage longer with your symptoms before getting relief. Living with constant or longer periods of inflammation might increase your risk for future complications, as inflammation might cause damage to the gut wall that accumulates in severity with each flare.

If you are experiencing worsening symptoms, you have probably already had the flare for some time without symptoms. Evidence shows that a stool test for inflammation in the colon, called fecal calprotectin, is often elevated for two to three months before any symptoms appear. Your colon might also start to show visual evidence of inflammation before you have symptoms, or at least indicate an increased risk for a flare.

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How Often Do I Need A Colonoscopy

Especially when you have symptoms or are just starting or changing medications, your doctor may want to periodically look at the inside of the rectum and colon to make sure the treatments are working and the lining is healing. How often this is needed is different for each person.

Ulcerative colitis also increases your chance of developing colon cancer. To look for early cancer signs, your healthcare provider may have you come in for a colonoscopy every one to three years.

The Main Types Of Drugs

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The aim of drug treatment for Ulcerative Colitis is to reduce inflammation. The main types of drugs are:

Aminosalicylates reduce inflammation in the lining of the intestine. Examples include mesalazine , olsalazine , sulphasalazine and balsalazide .

Corticosteroids work by blocking the substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory responses in your body. They include prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, budesonide , hydrocortisone and beclometasone dipropionate .

Immunosuppressants suppress the immune system, and reduce levels of inflammation. The main immunosuppressants used in IBD are azathioprine , mercaptopurine or 6MP , methotrexate, ciclosporin and tacrolimus. They are often used in patients who relapse when they come off steroids.

Biological drugs are the newest group of drugs used to treat IBD. Anti-TNF drugs, such as infliximab , adalimumab and golimumab target a protein in the body called TNF, or tumor necrosis factor, preventing inflammation. Another type of biological drug is vedolizumab , which works by stopping white blood cells from entering the lining of the gut and causing inflammation.

You can find more information about some of the drugs used for Colitis: Adalimumab, Aminosalicylates , Azathioprine and Mercaptopurine, Biologic Drugs, Golimumab, Methotrexate, Infliximab, Steroids, Ustekinumab and Vedolizumab.

About a quarter of people diagnosed with Crohn’s or Colitis are children or adolescents at the time they are diagnosed.

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Causes Of Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is the result of several factors that are not yet well understood. Abnormal immune response, genetics, microbiome, and environmental factors all contribute to ulcerative colitis.

Research suggests that ulcerative colitis could be triggered by an interaction between a virus or bacterial infection in the colon and the bodys immune response.

  • Typically, the cells and proteins that make up your immune system protect you from infection.

  • A normal immune response would cause temporary inflammation to combat an illness or infection. The inflammation would then go away once you are healthy and free of the illness.

  • In ulcerative colitis patients, the inflammation persists long after the immune system should have finished its job. The body continues to send white blood cells into the lining of the intestines, where they produce chronic inflammation and ulcers.

Some Doctors May Use The Following Table To Classify Your Symptoms*:

*A patient does not need to have all of these factors to be considered in a specific category of disease

Ulcerative colitis symptoms are considered moderate when you experience between 4-6 stools per day which include a moderate amount of blood. Severe UC is when you experience 6-10 per day with a severe amount of blood when passing.

If youre concerned about any of your symptoms, talk to your doctor immediately.

How would you describe your symptoms?

Do your best to keep track of your symptoms so you can clearly describe them to your doctor. This information is key in helping your doctor determine the right treatment for you.

…because of my UC symptoms, I wasnt able to socialize with my friends. Unfortunately I was missing out on a lot of plans.

– Sarah, a real UC patient using HUMIRA

Changing your routine because of UC symptoms? Youre not alone. Hear from others who have been there.

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What Is The Cause Of Uc

Like other autoimmune diseases, researchers and doctors arent sure what causes ulcerative colitis. A general consensus is that UC is believed to result from an overactive immune system, but this is on par with schools of thought concerning other autoimmune disorders. Certain risk factors can put you more at risk for the development of UC. These include:

  • The presence of other autoimmune conditions. If you have another autoimmune condition, such as celiac disease, you are more likely to develop UC.
  • Genetics. If IBD, IBS, or colon cancer runs in the family, you have a better chance of developing UC.
  • Your environment. Certain things in the environment may trigger the immune response, such as viruses, antigens, and bacteria.

There is not much information available regarding the prevention of UC, and theres no evidence to link diet with UC. However, its typically advised to avoid fatty foods and to eat smaller meals throughout the day. Also, high-fiber foods may aggravate UC.

Who Gets Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis

Anyone at any age, including young children, can get ulcerative colitis. Your chance of getting it is slightly higher if you:

  • Have a close relative with inflammatory bowel disease .
  • Are between 15 and 30 years old, or older than 60.
  • Are Jewish.
  • Use frequent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen .

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Incidence Of Respiratory Diseases In Ibd And Of Ibd In Rd

Respiratory diseases are a possible complication of IBD, even if pulmonary alterations are often overlooked, especially when respiratory symptoms are already present before the diagnosis of IBD. The first recognition of a correlation between the diseases of the two districts is attributable to Kraft , who in 1976 reported a series of patients with unexplained bronchial suppuration. Since then, numerous reports have outlined the association between IBD and respiratory pathologies. The rate of extra-intestinal manifestations in patients with IBD ranges from 21 to 41% , increasing with the duration of the intestinal disease, and being greater in CD than in UC . However, the true prevalence of lung involvement in IBD remains unknown and it seems rather variable, because in some series only few cases of respiratory complications have been found. In fact, in 624 patients no respiratory complication was reported, and only 3/1400 cases of IBD were found by Rodgers et al. . On the other hand, it can be difficult to establish a relationship between IBD and RD in patients who are already affected with pulmonary disease at the diagnosis of IBD, or are current smokers.

Table 1 Respiratory Alterations in IBD

in untreated patients was significantly greater than in control subjects

Alterations affecting the “lung parenchyma” are relatively rare in IBD patients, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is the most common reported manifestation .

How Can I Help My Child Live With Ulcerative Colitis

Children with this condition need long-term care. Your child may have times when symptoms go away . This can sometimes last for months or years. But symptoms usually come back.

Your child should learn what foods trigger his or her symptoms and avoid these foods. You and your childs healthcare provider should make sure your child gets enough nutrients to grow and develop well. Support groups can help you and your child. Work with your childs healthcare provider to create a care plan for your child.

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How Can You Reduce Your Chances Of Getting Covid

If you have Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis, consider that you could be immunosuppressed at least to a certain degree. You should be practicing social distancing to the fullest extent that you can.

Ideally, stay home and let someone else do the food shopping, says Dr. Morganstern. You should also be extra strict about good hand hygiene, wearing a face mask in public places, and regularly disinfecting commonly used surfaces in your home.

Dr. Ungaro adds that this is a stressful time for everyone, and that many IBD patients report that their symptoms get worse when theyre stressed even if blood tests dont always show that inflammation has increased.

There is a very strong brain/gut connection, he says. Its normal to have anxiety, but if you can do something proactive about it like connect with a psychologist or social worker through telemedicine its a good idea.

You can also try to exercise more at home, download and use a meditations app, or do anything else that helps you unwind. You can get mental health advice for coping with coronavirus-related anxiety and other issues through our GHLF Patient Support Program.

Whats The Difference Between Ulcerative Colitis And Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis Signs and Symptoms (& Why They Occur), and Complications

Colitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Colitis causes symptoms such as abdominal pain and cramping, bloating, and diarrhea.

An inflamed colon can be caused by several conditions. UC is one possible cause. Other possible causes of colitis include:

  • infection
  • Crohns disease
  • an allergic reaction

To diagnose the cause of colitis, a doctor will order a series of tests. These tests will help them understand what other symptoms youre experience and rule out conditions based on what youre not experiencing.

Treatment for colitis will depend on the underlying cause and other symptoms you have.

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How Is Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosed

To diagnose ulcerative colitis in children, teenagers and adults, your healthcare provider has to rule out other illnesses. After a physical exam, your provider may order:

  • Blood tests: Your blood can show signs of infection or anemia. Anemia is a low level of iron in your blood. It can mean you have bleeding in the colon or rectum.
  • Stool samples: Signs of infection, parasites , and inflammation can show up in your poop.
  • Imaging tests: Your healthcare provider may need a picture of your colon and rectum. You may have tests including a magnetic resonance imaging scan or computed tomography scan.
  • Endoscopic tests: An endoscope is a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera. Specialized doctors can slide the endoscope in through the anus to check the health of the rectum and colon. Common endoscopic tests include colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy.

What Role Does Diet And Nutrition Play In Ulcerative Colitis

Diet does not cause the development of ulcerative colitis nor can any special diet cure the disease. However, the foods you or your child eat may play a role in managing symptoms and lengthening the time between flareups.

Some foods may make symptoms worse and should be avoided, especially during flareups. Foods that trigger symptoms are different from person to person. To narrow down what foods affect you, keep track of what you eat each day and how you feel afterward .

Problem foods often include:

  • High sugar foods and drinks.
  • Carbonated beverages.
  • High-fiber foods.
  • Alcohol.

In addition to the problem foods listed above, infants, children and teenagers can also experience issues with:

  • Salt.
  • Dairy products.

Keep a careful eye on your childs diet and nutrition. Their appetite may decrease during a flareup and they might not eat enough to stay healthy, and grow. Also, the inflammation caused by ulcerative colitis may keep their digestive tract from absorbing enough nutrients. This can also affect your childs health. For these reasons, you may have to increase the amount of calories your child consumes.

Its best to work with your provider and nutritionist to come up with a personalized diet plan if you or your child has ulcerative colitis.

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