Statistical Analysis To Identify Significantly Different Otus
In order to determine if OTUs were significantly different between cranberry and placebo, we performed Wilcoxon rank sum tests on the log2 fold-changes of each subject, comparing week 24 to week 0 read counts, calculating whether the cranberry group significantly differed from the placebo group on a per-OTU basis. This method accounts for differences between individuals microbiomes prior to starting the treatment, calculating independently how each individual changed over time. Prior to calculating fold-change, the rarefied OTU Table was filtered to exclude subjects that did not have samples from both week 0 and week 24, as well as to exclude OTUs that were present in fewer than 25% of subject samples , which reduced the number of OTUs analyzed from 943 to 219 and the number of subjects considered to 16 from placebo and 18 from cranberry . Fold-change values were calculated as follows: log2 / ), accounting for patients that had no evidence of the OTU in either time point such that they had a fold-change of 0. P-values from the Wilcoxon rank sum tests were adjusted for multiple hypothesis correction using Benjamini-Hochberg . We also assessed different thresholds for OTU inclusion in the analysis, including being present in 5, 10, and 50% of subject samples, but for all thresholds tested, OTU41 was consistently the only significant result after p-value correction .
Causes Of Stomach Ulcer
Stomach ulcer results from the rupture of the protective layer of stomach lining which protected the stomach wall from the stomach acids. This usually happens as a result of
- Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection
- Long and continual intake of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs , such as ibuprofen or aspirin, that too at high doses
However, little evidence has been found supporting the fact that consumption of certain types of foods or stress can cause stomach ulcers directly.
What Does Cranberry Sauce Do For The Body
Cranberries are often regarded as a superfood due to their high nutritional and antioxidant content. In fact, studies have connected cranberry ingredients to a lower risk of urinary tract infection , the prevention of some forms of cancer, enhanced immunological function, and lower blood pressure. Cranberry sauce is usually made with fresh or frozen cranberries that have been cooked with sugar and sometimes spices. Though the fruit is most commonly associated with Thanksgiving, its also served during Christmas holidays.
Beyond being a tasty addition to your holiday table, this traditional American food can benefit your health. Research published in 2004 showed that people who ate at least one bowl of cranberry sauce each week had lower rates of UTIs than those who did not eat any cranberry products at all.
Cranberries contain polyphenols that have antimicrobial properties. Additionally, they contain proanthocyanidins, compounds that have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Finally, cranberries are a good source of vitamin C, fiber, potassium, and zinc.
Because cranberries are acidic, adding more acidity to your body by eating foods like oranges or pineapple with your dinner may help prevent UTIs. However, if you have a UTI, do not take antibiotics unless your doctor prescribes it for you. Cranberry products may become ineffective if taken too early or too late in the treatment process.
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How Does This Recipe Differ From Traditional Cranberry Sauce
While the most basic homemade cranberry sauce usually consists of cranberries, cane sugar, and water, some recipes include additional ingredients like nuts, alcohol, and spices.
Of note, canned cranberry sauce often contains additional food additives such as the chemical BPA, which may worsen IBD disease activity and symptoms.
S Rrna Sequencing And Analysis
In order to infer the microbial composition at the species level, we sequenced the 16S rRNA V4 region for all 131 samples using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Our DNA extraction protocol included steps involving bead beating and heating in order to expand the range of microbial species which could be observed . Our 16S rRNA sequencing targeted amplification of a ~ 250 bp region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene with tailed primers to generate 175 bp paired-end reads . The mean read depth per sample was 152,300 paired reads. Reads are publicly available on NCBI BioProject PRJNA528960.
In order to test for OTU-level compositional differences before vs. after treatment across both study arms, we used a generalized Hotellings test implemented in R . In brief, the GHT tests for whether the average microbiome compositions of paired samples are the same or different. We ran the GHT for each study arm independently.
The OTU matrix was used to calculate the -diversity using the Chao1 index and the Shannon diversity index , as well as the -diversity using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity . All of these metrics were implemented in v1.8 of QIIME .
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What Foods Should I Not Eat When I Am Having An Ulcerative Colitis Flare
Certain foods can exacerbate or aggravate an UC flare and should be avoided. They are more likely to trigger cramping, bloating, and/or diarrhea and are also not recommended in people diagnosed with a stricture, which is a narrowing of the intestine caused by inflammation or scar tissue, or in those who have had recent surgery. Examples include:
- Foods high in insoluble fiber that are hard to digest, such as seeds, raw green vegetables , whole nuts, whole grains, or fruits with a skin
- Lactose, which is milk sugar found in dairy products, milk, cream, cream cheese, and soft cheeses
- Non-absorbable sugars such as sorbitol, mannitol, and other sugar alcohols that are typically found in sugar-free gum, candy, ice cream, and certain types of fruits and juices such as pear, peach, and prune juice
- Sugary foods such as candy, pastries, and juices
- High-fat foods such as butter or margarine, coconut oil, or fatty, fried, or greasy food
- Alcohol such as beer, wine, or spirits
- Caffeinated drinks such as coffee or energy drinks
Juices You Can Take To Fight Colitis
On the other hand, colitis can cause inflammation, pain in the left side of the abdomen, mucus in the stool, rectal bleeding and even nausea. Colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease and can be ulcerative and Chrons disease.
In both conditions, there are foods that should be avoided, such as caffeine and alcohol, and others that it is advisable to add to our daily diet. To do this, we recommend these juices for colitis or how about an ice cream that helps fight it.
Smoothies and green juices can help the stomach because of the ingredients with which they are prepared, which are usually rich in FIBER. It is also important to consume foods that are fermented and rich in probiotics.
BANANA AND PAPAYA LIQUEFIED
This smoothie for colitis is recommended, as it is very high in fiber. Combine a banana, a cup of papaya, a cup and a half of water and vegetables in a food processor or blender you can add chia.
BANANA AND PEAR JUICE
Place two bananas, a very ripe pear, mint and a cup and a half of water in a food processor or blender and mix.
MANGO JUICE AND ALOE
Mix a very ripe mango with gel from an aloe vera leaf, greens and a cup and a half of cold marshmallow tea. This drink is also very rich in fiber. It is also advisable to drink aloe vera or aloe vera juices to combat colitis.
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Youre Not Avoiding Trigger Foods
Theres no food or food group that causes or cures ulcerative colitis, Yun explains. But many people with UC say that certain foods either bring on symptoms or make them worse.
During a flare-up, your doctor may recommend adjustments to your diet. This can mean avoiding foods that trigger symptoms, such as bloating, diarrhea, and cramping. For example, dairy products can be particularly irritating for people who have both UC and lactose intolerance.
Aside from dairy, common trigger foods include beans, whole grains, nuts, seeds, some raw fruits and vegetables, high-fat foods, sugary foods, and sugar alcohols . If youre trying an elimination diet to determine which foods you need to avoid, keep a food diary, and always work with a healthcare practitioner to ensure youre getting all the nutrients you need.
Is It Ok To Drink Cranberry Juice Everyday
Cranberry offers many health benefits, so it stands to reason that drinking cranberry juice every day would be good for you. Throughout history, cranberry juice has been used as a treatment for urinary problems, upset stomach, and liver problems . The label should say 100 percent real juice.Jun 19, 2020.
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Cranberries Vs Blueberries Health Comparison
Cranberries and blueberries are low in calories, fat, cholesterol, and sodium. They contain beneficial vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants, and other phytochemicals that promote health.
The nutritional composition of cranberry and blueberries is not too different. But, just like their shared similarities, they also possess unique properties that make them stand out.
We will look at these similarities and differences between cranberry and blueberries in detail based on available scientific findings.
What Foods Should You Eat And Avoid If You Have Stomach Ulcers
Deciding what to eat is difficult enough as it is. Imagine how much more difficult it would be if you had a stomach condition that prevents you from eating the foods you like!For those of you who have stomach ulcers, choosing what foods to eat can be tricky. We totally get you. So we came up with a list of foods that can serve as your guide on what you should eat and avoid if youre suffering from stomach ulcers.
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You Need Your Meds Adjusted
Antibiotics for an infection outside of your gut could aggravate UC symptoms. Let your doctor know if you experience diarrhea after starting antibiotics, since a switch in the type of drug might be needed. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen can also trigger a UC flare.
Your doctor may also suggest taking an antidiarrheal medication. Probiotics beneficial live microorganisms that live in your gut may also help reduce diarrhea, according to the NIDDK, although its not clear how many of them you have to take or which strains may be most helpful. If you do decide to take a probiotic, always talk to your doctor first.
Drinks To Avoid With Acid Reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux disease causes different symptoms in different people. It can take time to figure out what lifestyle modifications work well for you. That said, some foods and drinks are more likely to trigger reflux symptoms than others. Avoiding the following drinks may be a good place to start when trying to feel your best while living with acid reflux.
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What Can I Drink During A Colitis Flare Up
If youre experiencing a colitis flare-up, there are a few things you can do to help ease your symptoms. First, its important to stay hydrated. Drink plenty of fluids, like water, juice, and clear broth. You may also want to avoid caffeine and alcohol, which can dehydrate you.There are a few specific drinks that can help with colitis flare-ups. One is chamomile tea. Chamomile has anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation in the digestive tract. Another option is ginger tea. Ginger is a natural stomach soother and can help relieve nausea and vomiting associated with colitis flare-ups.If youre struggling to drink enough fluids during a flare-up, try sucking on ice chips or popsicles. These can help keep you hydrated and may be easier on your stomach than drinking large amounts of fluid at once. And if youre feeling particularly nauseous, sipping on peppermint or lemon balm tea may help settle your stomach.Of course, every person experiences colitis differently, so what works for one person may not work for another. If you find that certain foods or drinks make your symptoms worse, its best to avoid them during a flare-up.
The Specific Carbohydrate Diet
The Specific Carbohydrate Diet was specifically designed to help treat Celiac disease, but it has since been recommended for Ulcerative Colitis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Crohns Disease. The main takeaway from this whole article should be some of our intestines dont digest grains or sugars well!
The Specific Carbohydrate diet, like the Low-FODMAP diet is considered an elimination diet, which is a diet where you eliminate trigger foods during flare-ups to help battle your painful symptoms. On this diet, you eliminate carbohydrates that are complex to digest. You may be tired of hearing this, but the top two foods you need to quit on the SCD are grains and dairy. This diet can be hard to follow long-term since there are so many foods you have to eliminate, so dont feel bad if you feel like you cant keep up. Long-term diets arent really sustainable, which is why I suggest a trial period to see how your gut is feeling, but also to see how youre managing mentally.
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Dietary Cranberry Suppressed Dss
The effects of dietary cranberry on histological damages in the colons were examined following the histological grading system as described in Materials and Methods. Colonic inflammation is characterized by severe lesions in the colon mucosa, alteration of epithelial structure, increase in neutrophil population and lymphocyte infiltration into the mucosal and submucosal layers, and loss of normal crypts . The colon specimens from the healthy control group exhibited normal features of typical glands and abundant goblet cells in epithelium . In contrast, the colonic specimens obtained from the DSS group showed serious erosive lesions with extensive loss of glands, thickening of the mucosa, cellular infiltration of immune cells into the submucosa and lamina propria and crypt shortening, collectively resulting in a higher histological score. However, in the WCB group, dietary cranberry remarkably decreased the total histological score compared with the DSS group. The colonic specimens obtained from DSS-WCB group had no noticeable erosion with just mild inflammatory cell infiltration. In both non-colitic groups, no aberrant tissue was observed.
Histological characterization of the colon mucosa. Representative images of H& E stained colon: CTL, WCB, DSS, DSS-WCB.
Is Cranberry Juice Good For Acid Reflux
Acid reflux occurs when the muscle that acts as a valve at the end of your esophagus relaxes too much or fails to shut properly, enabling unpleasant digestive juices to flow upward.
This may be caused by several factors, including smoking, obesity, and pregnancy.
Cranberry juice has a low pH, a high sugar content, and a relatively low fiber content.
Because of all of these factors, people who have acid reflux disease often stay away from it. In addition to that, it has a high-calorie density.
Cranberry juice may be excessively sour for some individuals.
But others dilute it with water and appreciate the health advantages it provides, including protection against kidney stones and urinary tract infections .
Cranberry juice may benefit your health in specific ways, but if you suffer from acid reflux, you should probably avoid drinking it.
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Breakfast To Control Diarrhea And Cramping
A low-fiber and low-residue diet eases bouts of diarrhea and abdominal cramping associated with ulcerative colitis. Follow this type of diet for the short term and after physician consultation, because it restricts your nutrition intake. Breakfast may include 1/2 cup of apple juice, one scrambled egg with one slice of toasted white bread and a side of plain grits. Plain hot or cold cereal can replace grits, and you may add one slice of cheese to the eggs if you can tolerate dairy. Choose cranberry juice or strained and pulp-free orange juice as an alternative to apple juice. Top the toast with margarine or low-sugar jelly.
Limit foods high in saturated fats because these increase the amount of waste passing through your colon. Choose well-cooked or tender cuts of meat and nonfat or low-fat dairy as tolerated. Lunch may include a tuna sandwich with an iceberg lettuce slice on white bread, 1/2 cup of cooked carrots on the side and a medium banana. Add a cup of low-fat milk or fruit juice to complete the meal. Instead of bread, wrap the tuna in a white grain pita or tortilla and opt for steamed salmon or flounder as a fish alternative. Use herbs, pepper or plain gravy instead of salt to flavor foods.
Predicting Characteristic Functional Capabilities Of Otu41
We next sought to understand why OTU41 responded to daily consumption of the beverages, and to connect changes in abundance of OTU41 with observed differences in clinical presentation of UTI. The tool HUMAnN2 relies on previously generated genomic and gene family databases given that the closest reference species to OTU41 was F. plautii, with only 74% ANI to Flavonifractor sp. 54, HUMAnN2 was unable to identify gene families and pathways, including those taxonomically assigned to Flavonifractor, that were significantly different between the cranberry and placebo arms after 24weeks. Thus, we took a more targeted approach, using a combination of comparative genomics and comparative metagenomics, to identify potential special functional capabilities of OTU41. We defined these special functions or OTU41-characteristic genes as those found in the Flavonifractor sp. 54 genome and in metagenomic samples containing abundant OTU41, but not found in other Flavonifractor or related genomes or in metagenomic samples that did not contain detectable OTU41.
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