Sunday, November 27, 2022

Can A Bleeding Ulcer Cause Blood In Urine

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Identification Of Peptic Ulcers

What Triggers a Peptic Ulcer?

At baseline, participants were asked whether they ever had gastric or duodenal ulcers and to record the time of occurrence for each type . In a follow-up questionnaire , participants were asked again for any history of ulcer with an approximate time of occurrence . Our analyses are based on self-reported ulcers that were diagnosed before 1986 . We did not have medical records for ulcers before 1986, and consequently, ulcers may have been misclassified in this study. No incident ulcers were included in our analyses.

Understanding Urine And The Bladder

Your kidneys make urine continuously. A trickle of urine is constantly passing to your bladder down the tubes which run from the kidneys to the bladder. You make different amounts of urine, depending on how much you drink, eat and sweat.

Your bladder is made of muscle and stores the urine. It expands like a balloon as it fills with urine. The outlet for urine is normally kept closed. This is helped by the muscles below your bladder that surround and support your urethra .

When a certain volume of urine is in your bladder, you become aware that your bladder is becoming full. When you go to the toilet to pass urine, your bladder muscle squeezes and your urethra and pelvic floor muscles relax to allow the urine to flow out.

Stomach Cancer And Other Conditions Associated With H Pylori

H pylori is strongly associated with certain cancers. Some studies have also linked it to a number of non-gastrointestinal illnesses, although the evidence is inconsistent.

Stomach Cancers

Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In developing countries, where the rate of H pylori is very high, the risk of stomach cancer is six times higher than in the United States. Evidence now suggests that H pylori may be as carcinogenic to the stomach as cigarette smoke is to the lungs.

Infection with H pylori promotes a precancerous condition called atrophic gastritis. The process most likely starts in childhood. It may lead to cancer through the following steps:

  • The stomach becomes chronically inflamed and loses patches of glands that secrete protein and acid.
  • New cells replace destroyed cells. But the new cells do not produce enough acid to protect against carcinogens.
  • Over time, cancer cells may develop and multiply in the stomach.

Although the evidence is mixed, some research suggests that early elimination of H pylori may reduce the risk of stomach cancer to that of the general population. It is important to follow patients after treatment for a long period of time.

Other Diseases

H pylori also is weakly associated with other non-intestinal disorders, including migraine headache, Raynaud disease , and skin disorders such as chronic hives.

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Assessment Of Smoking Medication Use Diet And Other Factors

At baseline, and biennially thereafter, men provided information on their current smoking status, medication use, weight, height, and geographic location. The baseline questionnaire provided detailed information on past smoking habits, time since quitting, average number of cigarettes smoked/day before age 15 and at ages 1519, 2029, 3039, 4049, 5059, and 60 and older. To control for smoking, total pack-years of smoking was derived to incorporate all past smoking experience. One cigarette pack-year is equivalent to having smoked one pack or 20 cigarettes/day over an entire year. Questions on current medication use in 1986 included commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and two H2-receptor antagonists .

A 131-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline. This questionnaire assesses average frequency of dietary intake over the previous year. Total fluid intake was calculated using the 22 beverage items, including water, on the food frequency questionnaire. The information on frequency and serving size was combined to give each member a score in milliliters . Vitamin E intake was calculated from the food frequency questionnaire using both dietary and supplement data. Frequency of cruciferous vegetable intake was summed across its individual constituents .

Causes Of Blood In Stool

The 11 Signs and Symptoms of Ulcer People Should Be Aware Of

When blood makes its way into poop, it may actually turn the stool black or tarry, rather than red or pink, per the NIDDK. Once again, there are many potential causes, from very common to more rare.

“Blood in bowel movements is often caused by hemorrhoids,” says Andrew Chan, MD, MPH, director of the Gastroenterology Training Program and the vice chair of gastroenterology at Massachusetts General Hospital and a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Hemorrhoids are inflamed or swollen veins located around the anus or lower rectum that can be either internal or external, according to the NIDDK. Internal hemorrhoids in particular are known to trigger rectal bleeding when a patient struggles with constipation and strains when on the toilet. Hemorrhoids can also trigger small tears called anal fissures, which can also lead to blood in stool.

Another relatively common condition that can lead to bleeding is a peptic ulcer, which can be prompted either by a bacterial infection or by overuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pain medications. Regardless of how ulcers develop, GI bleeding can result, according to the NIDDK.

“Another cause can be bleeding from diverticula,” Dr. Chan says. These are small pouches that develop along the colon over time. The condition is called diverticulosis, and when one or more pouches get inflamed, it progresses to diverticulitis. Episodes of diverticulitis can be quite severe and necessitate immediate medical attention.

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What Are The Tests For Hematuria

If you have blood in the urine, your healthcare provider will typically ask you for a urine sample. A full urinalysis will not only look out for red blood cells but protein, glucose, or any signs of infection. The presence of excess protein is particularly helpful as it may point us in the direction of kidney impairment.

Your healthcare provider may order additional tests to pinpoint the exact cause of bleeding:

  • Blood tests may be used to evaluate creatinine and blood urea nitrogen , among other things
  • Imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, computerized tomography scan, or magnetic imaging resonance
  • Cystoscopy may be used to visually examine the bladder using a flexible catheter equipped with a camera that is inserted through the urethra
  • A biopsy may be required to evaluate any suspicious findings in your kidneys or bladder

Outlook For Hemorrhagic Cystitis

Your outlook depends on the stage and the cause. HC from infection has a good outlook. Many people with infectious HC respond to treatment and dont have long-term problems.

HC from cancer treatment can have a different outlook. Symptoms may start weeks, months, or years after treatment and may be long-lasting.

There are many treatment options for HC caused by radiation or chemotherapy. In most cases, HC will respond to treatment, and your symptoms will improve after cancer therapy.

If other treatments dont work, cystectomy can cure HC. After cystectomy, there are options for reconstructive surgery to restore urine flow. Keep in mind that needing cystectomy for HC is very rare.

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Why Does It Happen

The reasons vary, depending on where the bleeding is happening.

If itâs in your esophagus causes can include:

Esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux. Stomach acid that returns, or “refluxes,” back into the esophagus from the stomach can cause irritation and inflammation of the esophagus that may lead to bleeding. Read more about gastroesophageal reflux .

Varices. These are abnormally enlarged veins usually located at the lower end of the esophagus or the upper stomach. They may break open and bleed. Cirrhosis of the liver is the most common cause of esophageal varices. Learn more about the symptoms of bleeding varices.

Mallory-Weiss tear. This is a tear in the lining of the esophagus. Itâs usually caused by severe vomiting. It can also happen due to things that increase pressure in your belly, such as coughing, hiccupping, or childbirth. Find out more on nausea and vomiting.

Bleeding from the stomach can be caused by:

Gastritis. This is inflammation in the stomach. Alcohol and some pain medicines can cause it. Watch a video about gastritis.

Ulcers. Ones in the stomach may enlarge and erode through a blood vessel, causing bleeding. Aside from medication, the most common cause of these is an infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. Also, people who have had burns, shock, head injuries, or cancer, and those who’ve had major surgery, may get stress-related stomach ulcers. Get the facts on peptic ulcers.

Cancer of the stomach.

Urgent Care For Ulcerative Colitis

Peptic Ulcer Disease (Gastric vs. Duodenal Ulcers) | Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

During a flare of ulcerative colitis, treatment is important to avoid complications. The most common complication is bleeding that can lead to anemia. With a severe flare, the colon may stop working and dilate . If not successfully treated, the colon may rupture and become a medical emergency. If treatment is not successful, surgery may be necessary. Usually, the entire colon is removed.

Recommended Reading: How To Heal An Ulcer In The Esophagus

Smelly And Tarry Discharge

Another very important symptom that can give a hint that a person is suffering from a bleeding ulcer is the passing of a stinky smelling and tarry discharge from the rectum in the form of unusual dark stools. This can help identify signs of gastric ulcer currently in the course of bleeding which may have been actively bleeding for a significant period of time.

How Does H Pylori Cause Ulcers

Although many people naturally carry H. pylori, it is not clear why the bacteria only cause ulcers in some people. H. pylori spread through food and water. They live in the mucus that coats the lining of the stomach and duodenum, and they produce urease, an enzyme that neutralizes stomach acid by making it less acidic.

To compensate for this, the stomach produces more acid, and this irritates the stomach lining. The bacteria also weaken the defense system of the stomach and causes inflammation. Patients with peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori need treatment to get rid of the bacterium from the stomach, and to prevent them coming back.

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What Your Doctor Will Check

If you notice any unusual bleeding, make an appointment to see your doctor. They’ll ask you questions and give you a physical examination. Symptoms such as changes in bowel habits, stool color , consistency, and whether you have pain or tenderness may tell your doctor which area of the GI tract is affected.

They’ll test your stool for blood. You’ll also take a blood test to check to see if you’re anemic. The results will give your doctor an idea of the extent of the bleeding and how chronic it may be.

If you have bleeding in your digestive tract, you’ll likely get an endoscopy. This common procedure lets your doctor see exactly where the symptom is happening. In many cases, the doctor can use the endoscope to treat the cause of bleeding, too. It’s a thin, flexible tool that they can insert through your mouth or rectum to see the areas of concern and take a tissue sample, or biopsy, if needed.

Several other procedures can be used to find the source of bleeding, including:

X-rays. During these tests you either drink or have barium-containing fluid placed through your rectum. Then an X-ray is used to look for any unusual signs. Barium lights up on this imaging test.

Angiography. Doctors inject a dye into a vein before you get a CT scan or MRI. The dye helps to show where the trouble is. In some cases, doctors use angiography to inject medicine that may stop the bleeding.

Ulcers With Other Causes

NSAIDs in clinical orthopaedic practice

up to 90 percent of peptic ulcers are caused by H. pylori and NSAID use. But, a recent review in the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention states that ulcers without H. pylori infection or NSAID use are increasing.

The study, which took place in Thailand, suggests that other factors, including alcohol, other infections, medications, or diseases, including stomach and intestinal cancer, may be to blame.

People with symptoms of a peptic ulcer may undergo a test known as an upper endoscopy. A doctor passes a lighted, flexible tube with a camera through the mouth and into the stomach. In some cases, it is possible to treat a bleeding ulcer during the endoscopy.

Doctors often treat ulcers with medications that block or reduce stomach acid. These medicines include:

  • Proton pump inhibitors dexlansoprazole , esomeprazole , omeprazole , lansoprazole , pantoprazole , and rabeprazole .
  • H2 blockers cimetidine , famotidine , and nizatidine .

People who take NSAIDs and who are diagnosed with a peptic ulcer may need to stop taking the NSAID.

When a doctor diagnoses a person with a H.pylori infection, they will prescribe antibiotics and other medicines to kill the bacteria. H. pylori is tricky to kill, so to ensure that the treatment is successful, a person must take all medicines as prescribed, even if they feel better.

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Colitis And Crohns Disease

Colitis and Crohns disease are Inflammatory Bowel Diseases where the intestines can become swollen, inflamed and ulcerated. The symptoms for these conditions include abdominal pain, loss of weight, diarrhoea, urgent need to go to the toilet, and tiredness. These symptoms will vary from person to person and can be more extreme for one person and not for another.

Diarrhoea caused by IBD is often accompanied by blood and mucus, especially with Ulcerative Colitis. The symptoms not only vary from person to person but may flare-up or improve/ go into remission unpredictably.

Treatments for IBD may include:

Some forms of psychotherapy, sometimes called talk therapy, may also help you cope with stress related to IBD symptoms and help make your pain less severe.14 Your doctor can refer you to a counselor or therapist, or you can find one at .

When Should Someone Contact A Doctor About Colitis

Diarrhea is a common sign of colitis. It is usually self-limited and resolves on its own with supportive care, including rest and a short course of a clear-fluid diet. However, seek medical care if diarrhea persists for more than two to three weeks, if there is blood in the stool, fever, or the person has signs of dehydration.

  • Blood in the stool is never normal and should always be evaluated. Common causes of blood in the stool include hemorrhoids however, other serious causes of bleeding need to be investigated. Colitis is not the only cause of rectal bleeding. Other causes include diverticular disease of the colon , colon polyps, anal fissures, and cancer.
  • Chronic diarrhea may lead to dehydration and changes in the electrolyte balance in the body. If it is severe enough, the dehydration may require treatment with IV fluids or oral rehydration therapy. The symptoms of dehydration may include
  • lightheadedness , especially when changing from a sitting or lying position to a standing position
  • weakness

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Unique Mechanisms In Ibd Patients Prompt Revised Guidelines

Although both gallstones and kidney stones may be associated with IBD, the studys authors described different mechanisms that may influence their development. Without sufficient ileal activity, for example, they noted that a patients bile may contain excess bilirubin, which may form gallstones. Furthermore, a patient with IBD may experience multiple effects in the digestive tract that potentiate a risk of gallstones.

Kidney stones typically form due to a high abundance of oxalate or similar compounds in the urine, according to the study publication. IBD may result in more concentrated urine due to factors such as dehydration from diarrhea and dysregulation of absorptionof salts in the ileum. An ileostomy may also result in urine that is more acidic.

Dr.Fagagnini and her co-authors suggested that clinical trials further explore treatment and relationships between IBD and the development of gallstones and kidney stones. Specifically, they recommended studying the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in IBD patients at risk of gallstones and a diet low in oxalate and high in fluid, with decreased ingestion of some fatty acids, for IBD patients at higher risk of kidney stones.

The authors disclosed no competing financial interests.

Ibd Medications And Kidney Problems

Peptic Ulcers, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

The medications you take for IBD can sometimes cause issues with kidney function. Mesalamine and immunosuppressive medications like cyclosporine can sometimes change kidney function by causing the blood vessels in the kidneys to constrict, but this effect is very rare.

However, studies have found that other medications, such as aminosalicylates, methotrexate, and azathioprine, do not negatively affect estimated glomerular filtration rate , which is used to measure kidney function.

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Record Of Constant Bleeding

Individuals may find themselves in situations of bleeding ulcers from time to time. If the victim suffers from the problem for a relatively long time, the ulcer is likely at its advanced stage.

When the ulcer is at a stage that is considerably advanced, the sufferer may experience repeated onsets of bleeding episodes that will manifest in different ways from one time to another.

There are many signs of a bleeding ulcer that can be identified through both observation, assessment, and laboratory tests appropriate for the verification of the signs and symptoms. This will bring finer details about the underlying condition in order to draw fitting conclusions.

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