Monday, May 27, 2024

Immune Modifiers For Ulcerative Colitis

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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis And Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Treatment of IBD – William Faubion, M.D. – Mayo Clinic

Evidence suggests that infliximab may be effective in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical study found a non-significant trend in favor of infliximab in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis . In this multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 122 children with persistent polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis despite prior methotrexate therapy were randomized to receive infliximab or placebo for 14 weeks, after which all children received infliximab through week 44. Patients received methotrexate plus infliximab 3 mg/kg through week 44, or methotrexate plus placebo for 14 weeks followed by methotrexate plus infliximab 6 mg/kg through week 44. The investigators reported that a higher proportion of patients in the 3 mg/kg infliximab group than in the placebo group had achieved responses according to the American College of Rheumatology Pediatric 30 criteria for improvement at week 14 , but the between-group difference in this primary efficacy end point was not statistically significant . The investigators reported that, by week 16, after the crossover from placebo to infliximab 6 mg/kg when all patients were receiving infliximab, an ACR Pedi 30 response was achieved in 73.2 % of all patients. By week 52, ACR Pedi 50 and ACR Pedi 70 responses had been reached in 69.6 % and 51.8 %, respectively, of patients.

Is Colitis A Serious Disease

There are different types of colitis, with different causes. Some are short-lived and easy to treat, like when you have a bacterial infection from food poisoning. Other types called inflammatory bowel diseases are more chronic and difficult to treat. Colitis is more serious when it doesnt go away. A severe case can do serious damage to your colon over time. It also affects your quality of life.

Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis

Deutschmann et al described the case of an 18-year old girl with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis over a period of 10 years. She had suffered predominantly from very painful recurrent swelling of her cheeks. Various therapeutic regimens including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids had shown only a partial or temporary response. Because tumor necrosis factor-alpha-blocking agents have been successfully applied in Crohn’s-associated CRMO and the related SAPHO syndrome, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-blocking therapy with infliximab was initiated. Thereafter, apart from 1 mild episode, no additional recurrences were observed during 21 months of follow-up. Infliximab was well-tolerated, and steroids were tapered off. The authors concluded that their observation indicated that infliximab may be an effective therapeutic option in CRMO.

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Appendix E: Ra Classification And Disease Activity

RA Classification

Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria include a scoring system for the following four domains: joint distribution , serology , symptom duration , and acute phase reactants . A score of 6 or more equals definite RA however, a person might fulfill the criteria prospectively over time , or retrospectively if data on all four domains have been adequately recorded in the past. The criteria are meant to be used for persons with clinical synovitis in at least one joint. The classification are not diagnostic criteria, but they can inform the diagnosis. For more information see, American College of Rheumatology – Endorsed Criteria.Source: 2010 ACR/EULAR

Disease Activity

Disease activity is categorized as low, moderate, or high as per validated scales. Moderate and high disease activity categories have been combined . Structured assessments of disease activity which include multiple composite measures have been developed for RA. Eleven measures have been identified by the American College of Rheumatology as having utility in clinical practice to accurately reflect disease activity. The choice of measure is based upon clinician preference some measures require both patient and clinician input, while others are based only upon patient-reported data .

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Ulcerative Colitis Treatment

Music by Steve Neal. Immune logo image by Blausen MedicalSend your immunology questions and comments to

  • Paul Belzycki

    I am a dentist in Toronto and have been watching your various podcasts as I believe you folks are truthful. I admire this as I have struggled to do the same thing on the topic of restorative dentistry for the Canadian Dental Association. The internet is a flood of misinformation. Unfortunately that CDA platform has ceased. Given this review on gut issues, might it be possible to do a podcast on periodontal disease. Often I have seen oral lesions in those suffering gut immunological problems. Also the persistence of gum disease once the teeth have been cleaned. Obviously host response to oral microbes is at play. Many thanks for the work you do. Bringing truth to social media is vitally important. Dr Paul

    PS. I have taken the liberty of leaving a link to one of my posts in the url box. No need to publish it if inappropriate.

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    Psoriatic Arthritis And Psoriasis

    Based on limited evidence, the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention has concluded that psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis are accepted indications for infliximab. A controlled clinical study has demonstrated the short-term effectiveness of infliximab in plaque psoriasis. In a controlled clinical trial in which patients and investigators were blinded for the first 10 weeks, participants were assigned to either of 2 doses of infliximab or to placebo. Nineteen of 22 patients assigned to infliximab achieved good or better physician’s overall assessments, compared with 2 of 11 patients assigned to placebo. In initial studies, remissions seemed to be durable, with many patients improving for 6 months or longer.

    Side Effects And Concerns

    Biologics are known to sometimes cause harsh side effects. Currently, Biologics are only delivered systemically. They can’t be delivered orally because the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract would breakdown the drug before it could reach the diseased tissue. Because systemic administration results in blockading the same pathway in both healthy and diseased tissue, pharmacology is exaggerated leading to many side effects such as lymphoma, infections, congestive heart failure, demyelinating disease, a lupus-like syndrome, injection site reactions, and additional systemic side effects.

    Patients often wait until after other treatment options have failed to begin biological therapy because biologics are extremely expensive. One study modeled that, in the US, the average yearly cost of biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease was around $36,000. The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, with an estimated direct cost of $5.9 billion annually, poses a significant economic burden on the health care system. Recently, the primary treatment cost has shifted from hospitalization to medication. The shift is due to the rising use of these expensive biologics as well as their ability to reduce the need for hospitalization. The recent introduction of biosimilars can potentially lower the high cost of these drugs.

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    Herniated Disc And Sciatic Pain

    A systematic evidence review in BMJ Clinical Evidence found that the effectiveness of infliximab in treatment of herniated disc is unknown . The assessment identified 1 randomized controlled clinical trial of 41 people with acute or subacute sciatic pain, caused by herniated discs confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, comparing infliximab, given as a single intravenous infusion) versus control . The randomized controlled trial found no significant difference between infliximab and control in leg or back pain score improvements at 12 weeks or median reduction in back pain score at 12 weeks. The trial also found no significant difference between groups in reduction of Oswestry Disability Index scores, median cumulative sick leave, or the proportion of people undergoing discectomy.

    How To Treat Symptoms

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Precursors – CRASH! Medical Review Series

    In a given year, 70 percent of people with active disease will have another episode the following year. But only 30 percent of people in remission will have active disease the next year.

    Basically, the longer youre in remission, the less likely you are to have a flare-up the next year. And that means less diarrhea. Thats why its so important to find a treatment plan that works for you.

    Medications to control UC symptoms include:

    • aminosalicylates
    • immune modifiers

    There are also medications to help with diarrhea. Antidiarrheal agents help slow movement through the intestines, which helps your body absorb the fluids and nutrients you need. These include:

    Fiber supplements may also be helpful in reducing diarrhea, but avoid them if youre in the middle of a flare-up. Check with your doctor if youre not sure whether these supplements are suitable for you.

    Its also important to speak with your doctor under the following conditions:

    • Before adding any over-the-counter treatments or dietary supplements to your regimen. Some have the potential to interfere with the medications youre currently taking.

    There are a few ways to help manage urgent or frequent bowel movements. For example, you can set regular times to move your bowels. Choose times that are convenient, so youre not rushed.

    Some items that can contribute to loose stools are:

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    How To Manage Symptoms Of Uc

    Keeping symptoms of UC in remission can be protective against infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. Therefore, it is important a person knows how to manage their condition. A doctor can provide the most accurate and individualized information. Some treatment methods a doctor may recommend could include:

    How It Affects Daily Life

    The diagnosis of UC usually comes before an individual reaches 35 years old. However, theres another time in life when UC is most frequently diagnosed at around 60 years old. An estimated 12 percent of those with UC are diagnosed in the decades before and after this age.

    Regardless of when the disease is diagnosed, UC can take a significant physical and emotional toll on those living with this chronic condition.

    The urgent need to use a bathroom multiple times a day can interfere with your social activities and your ability to work. Diarrhea can be unpredictable, highly inconvenient, and potentially embarrassing. In addition to physical symptoms, people living with UC may experience:

    • elevated stress

    Your doctor may be able to pinpoint some potential triggers. You may also find it helpful to keep a daily journal to track what you eat, your physical activities, and stressful events. In time, you may be able to identify a pattern that leads to diarrhea.

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    Other Experimental And Investigational Indications

    Aetna considers infliximab, infliximab-abda, infliximab-axxq, and infliximab-dyyb experimental and investigational for all other indications because its effectiveness for these indications has not been established:

    • Takayasus arteritis

    Infliximab products include Avsola , Inflectra , Remicade , and Renflexis brands, which are considered tumor necrosis factor blockers. Infliximab neutralizes the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by binding to the soluble and transmembrane forms of TNF therefore effectively inhibiting the binding of TNF with its receptors. Infliximab does not neutralize TNF , a related cytokine that utilizes the same receptors as TNF. TNF is a cytokine that plays an important role in various inflammatory processes including: induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukins 1 and 6, enhancement of leukocyte migration by increasing endothelial layer permeability and expression of adhesion molecules by endothelial cells and leukocytes, activation of neutrophil and eosinophil functional activity, induction of acute phase reactants and other liver proteins, as well as tissue degrading enzymes produced by synoviocytes and/or chondrocytes.

    In addition to risk of serious infections, malignancies and heart failure, other labeled warnings and precautions include the following:

    Most common adverse reactions infections , infusion-related reactions, headache, and abdominal pain .

    Clinical Impact Of Eosinophilic Inflammation

    Disease Knowledge

    Despite the broad range of diseases where they are involved, eosinophils are not always recognised for their contribution. As these contributions to disease activity go unnoticed, eosinophilic inflammation can negatively impact the course of these diseases and hinder or delay the use of effective therapeutic remedies.8-10

    Patients suspected of having eosinophilic-driven or eosinophil-associated diseases should be referred to specialists who can accurately diagnose and appropriately treat their illness.11,12

    Targeting eosinophils is likely to be effective in halting the proliferation of inflammation and improving disease control.13


    The information on this website is provided by AstraZeneca for educational purposes and is intended for Healthcare Professionals only.

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    Treating Uc Symptoms At The Source

    To get ahead of UC symptoms, first you have to know whats behind them. UC symptoms are linked to excess inflammation that causes damage to your colon lining.

    Controlling inflammation over time can help reduce UC symptoms such as frequent and urgent bowel movements, bloody stools, and abdominal pain. Controlling inflammation can also help repair the colon lining.

    Controlling inflammation to help repair your colon lining and improve your symptoms is a goal of UC treatment.

    UC treatments are designed to control the excess inflammation in your colon. When inflammation is suppressed, it can help relieve common UC symptoms, achieve and maintain remission, and also help heal the tissue in your colon lining.

    While many UC treatments are designed to control excess inflammation, some treatments work in different ways than others. You and your doctor should discuss all treatment options and considerations to find the one that may be right for you.

    What is remission?

    When your UC is in remission, it means you are experiencing no symptoms. If you think about all the ways UC symptoms may be impacting your life, its easy to see why achieving and maintaining remission is so important.

    How Are Immunomodulators Taken

    How you take immunomodulators will depend on what type you have be prescribed and where you Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis is located.


    Azathioprine and 6-Mercaptopurine, which are both chemically quite similar, are taken orally on a daily basis. Cyclosporine A, methotrexate and tacrolimus can also be taken orally.


    Tacrolimus comes as a cream or ointment which can be used to treat Crohns disease affecting the mouth or in the perineal area . It is also prescribed as a treatment for pyoderma gangrenosum, a skin condition which can affect people with IBD.


    Methotrexate is taken by an injection, often weekly, which you will be taught how to do yourself at home.

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    Uc Treatment Options At A Glance

    The most commonly used treatments for UC:

    These drugs, given orally or rectally, are anti-inflammatory compounds that contain 5-aminosalicylic acid . They decrease inflammation at the wall of the intestine. Examples of 5-ASAs include sulfasalazine, balsalazide, mesalamine, and olsalazine.

    Metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and other antibiotics may be used when infections occur, or to treat complications of ulcerative colitis.

    Biologics for UC are designed to suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. Certain biologics work by targeting specific inflammatory proteins called cytokines that play a role in inflammation. Others work by preventing certain white blood cells from getting into inflamed tissues.

    Prednisone, prednisolone, and budesonide are included in this type of medication. They affect the bodys ability to initiate and maintain an inflammatory processkeeping the immune system in check. While effective for short-term flare-ups, theyre not recommended for long-term use.

    These modify the bodys immune system activity to stop it from causing ongoing inflammation These drugs are usually used for people who have responded only to steroids.

    Dive Into The Life Cycle Of The Eosinophil

    Gastroenterology: Ask Dr. Mattar

    The life cycle of the eosinophil can be divided into bone marrow, blood, and tissue phases. Once the eosinophil has entered the bloodstream, it has a short half-life, ranging from 8 to 18 hours. After circulating in the blood, eosinophils migrate into the tissues where they usually reside for about 2 to 5 days however, cytokines and growth factors can significantly prolong this phase, as studies have shown.1

    After production in the bone marrow, eosinophils remain in the pheripheral blood for only a few hours before migrating to specific organs. Chemokines targeting CCR3 promote eosinophil recruitment into organs and tissues.1,4

    Tissue recruitment and activation of eosinophils can be dramatically increased due to dysregulation in signalingand these activated eosinophils can cause and maintain considerable inflammatory activity, including their ability to recruit more eosinophils.

    This specific eosinophilic inflammationmaintained by the sustained presence of activated tissue eosinophilshighlights the role of eosinophils as important inflammatory effector cells responsible for chronic inflammation.1,2

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    What Are Some Common Side Effects Linked To Immunomodulator Treatment

    Various forms of immunomodulators can cause different side effects. However, some common side effects include:1

    Immunomodulators work by suppressing or weakening a patients immune system in order to reduce inflammation and the symptoms it causes. However, they can also have the effect of decreasing the bodys ability to combat infection. Patients taking immunomodulators should contact their healthcare provider if they begin to experience fever or chills, as these could be signs of an infection. People taking immunomodulators are also more likely to catch infections like a cold or the flu, because the medicine is telling their immune systems not to trigger inflammation to fight any infections or foreign objects. While this can help relieve the symptoms of IBD, it can also make it easier for infections to take hold.

    Some patients experience decreased function of the kidney or liver if they take some forms of immunomodulators over the long term. For a small number of patients, certain immunomodulators can cause other very serious side effects. For this reason, healthcare providers will take extensive medical histories before prescribing immunomodulators and then carefully monitor patients for any signs of these effects.

    Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should be sure to let their healthcare providers know before beginning treatment with immunomodulators because some types can cause pregnancy loss or possible birth defects.

    Role Of Eosinophils Across Diseases

    Eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis and disease manifestations of conditions with underlying eosinophilic inflammation to varying degrees. In these types of conditions, blood and/or tissue eosinophilia accompanies chronic inflammatory disease activity that can also be fueled by other proinflammatory drivers.7


    ANCA = antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody EGID = eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease HES = hypereosinophilic syndrome PDGFRA = platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

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    The Pros And Cons Of Biologics For Ulcerative Colitis

    The introduction of biologics has changed treatment for many people with ulcerative colitis. Heres what you need to know about the risks and benefits.

    Andrew Brookes/Getty Images

    Over the past 15 years, treatment options for ulcerative colitis have expanded quite a bit. Among the newer options is a class of drugs called biologics.

    Biologics are derived from natural sources, such as human or animal genes or microorganisms, and are designed to act on the immune system, specifically the parts that play key roles in fueling inflammation.

    As inflammation is thought to be a cornerstone of the process involved in the manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases, like Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, they have proved to be very effective as treatment for certain patients, says Donald Tsynman, MD, a gastroenterologist at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City.

    The fact that biologics target the activity of the patients own immune system is what sets them apart from some other medications for ulcerative colitis, Dr. Tsynman says.

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