Wednesday, August 3, 2022

What Causes Stomach Ulcers In Horses

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Signs Of Stomach Ulcers

Main Cause for Stomach Ulcers in horses

Signs of ulcers in adult horses can be vague and may include:

  • Acute or recurrent colic, particularly after eating.
  • Loss of body condition.
  • Changes in attitude.
  • Frequent lying down.

Horses with gastric ulcers may be reluctant to eat grain or may take more time than usual to eat the grain. Gastric ulcers also occur along with many other conditions. Horses are often placed on preventative or treatment doses during hospitalization.

Inappetence Poor Body Condition And Weight Loss

Several authors have reported an association between inappetence or fussy eating and gastric ulceration., , Signs of reduced appetite in horses with gastric ulcers can vary from mild to severe, and consequently might go unrecognized. Owners often refer to decreased appetite as fussy eating, without actually considering it a clinical sign of gastric ulceration. Poor body condition is associated with a high prevalence of gastric ulcers in racehorses in active training.

Turn Your Horse Out To Pasture More Frequently

In addition to this important step in treatment, there are several more actionable steps we can take to hasten your horses healing. If at all possible, turn your horse out more frequently. Remember, the horses stomach is small and produces acid continually. Consuming small meals more frequently helps to regulate this. 4. Stop or Drastically Reduce the Use of NSAIDs

If you extensively use NSAIDS on your horse, your vet will direct you to reduce their use or eliminate them drastically. That is because NSAIDs are well known to irritate the stomach lining.

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Tips To Keep Your Horse’s Stomach Healthy

  • Proper diet with constant access to grass or hay is very important.
  • Keep stalled time to a minimum.
  • Do not use NSAIDs or medication of any kind unless it’s absolutely necessary.
  • Keep on a vet recommended worming program with all of your horses year round.
  • Keep stress levels as low as possible.
  • Pasture time is golden! The more time your horse spends in a pasture and out of a stall the better!
  • Horses are herd animals, it stresses them out not to have at least one friend.

Remember, if you’re ever in doubt on if your horse is colicing or is struggling with ulcers, never hesitate to call your vet. You would always rather be safe than sorry. Don’t underestimate these conditions they are very painful to your horse and can lead to premature death if not handled correctly in a timely matter.

This article is accurate and true to the best of the authorâs knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.

Potential Causes Of Equine Gastric Ulcers

Does Your Horse Have Ulcers?

Concrete evidence for what causes ulcers in horses is nebulous at best. Generally accepted theory is that acid, stress, and occasionally bacteria can induce gastric ulcers.

The honest answer is that we dont really know for sure.

We do know that gastric ulcers are more prevalent in horses that regularly face the stresses of training, travel, and competition. We do know that ulcers will go away, at least temporarily, when stomach acids are suppressed. And we do know that bacteria cause ulcers in humans.

Ulceration first requires the mucosal lining to be compromised. There are several ways this protective lining can be compromised and, as a result, ulcers induced:

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In This Blog Article Well Describe Explain And Provide Comprehensive Information On The Following Questions:

  • What is a gastric ulcer?
  • What are the symptoms of horses with gastric ulcers?
  • What are the causes and how can I, as a horse owner, take preventive action?
  • How should feeding and rations be determined?
  • If worst comes to worst, how does a gastroscopy actually work?
  • What treatment options are there for horses with gastric ulcers and what are the chances of recovery? Can I actively ride a horse that has suffered from gastric ulcers?
  • Can I actively ride a horse that has suffered from gastric ulcers?

Also Check: What Can I Do For Ulcers In My Stomach

The Following Is The Current Best Advice On Feeding To Prevent Gastric Ulceration:

  • Allow access to high quality forage, predominantly during the day , at a minimum daily rate of 1.5kg/100kg body weight , ideally given continuously or at no more than 6 hour intervals.
  • Multiple forage sources in the stable improve eating consistency and allow foraging activity.
  • There is no difference between hay and haylage as a forage source in relation to ulceration.
  • Straw feeding should not exceed 0.25kg/100kgBWT, and it should not be the only forage source.
  • Free access to fresh water 24 hours a day.
  • Concentrate ration should be split into 3, rather than 2 meals per day
  • Total starch intake should not exceed 2g per kg bodyweight per day
  • Whilst there is no evidence to support the use of specific âgastric healthyâ commercial diets, the use of BETA EGUS approved feeds does ensure that you will not exceed the maximum starch level.
  • Chaff should be added to all meals.
  • Corn oil or rapeseed oil can reduce the amount of stomach acid produced and could increase barrier mucus function in the glandular mucosa
  • Pre-exercise chaff feeding – 2L un-molassed chaff given within 30 mins of exercise may trap acid and limit ulceration, and improve gastric blood supply.

Recovery Of Ulcers In Horses

Diagnostic and Treatment of Gastric Ulcers in Horses

Once treatment is begun, ulcers tend to begin healing however, it may take time. Depending on the type of treatment and the severity of the ulcer, your horse may take anywhere from a week to over a month to heal. Since ulcers tend to recur, it is important to have your horse get checked by your veterinarian a few days after the treatment is complete.

If you choose to give supplements or probiotics to your horse, be sure to consult with your veterinarian and he may give you professional advice on what would benefit your horse. Your medical professional will also reiterate the importance of altering his eating habits and stall time.

Your veterinarian will give you specific instructions on the medication dosage and administration, and will communicate to you any side effects to watch for. It will be important to monitor your horses symptoms and behavior during treatment and after. If you have any questions or concerns about how your horse is recovering from a gastric ulcer, contact your veterinarian. He may want to see him again during his treatment period to check on his recovery.

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Signs That Your Horse Might Have An Ulcer

Ulcers in horses can be challenging to identify as they sometimes present with quite generic symptoms. Only veterinary diagnosis will confirm whether your horse has ulcers or not but what are the telltale signs that you should keep an eye out for? Read our handy guide and become better informed.

Ulcers can present with a range of symptoms that can easily be attributed to other conditions. If you suspect something is wrong then your vet should evaluate your horse as it could be ulcers or a different issue. Ulcers rarely heal on their own without veterinary intervention. If your horse does have ulcers, your vet will need to determine which type they are as there are two different classifications:

  • ESGUS Ulcers in the upper region of the horses stomach which is called the Squamous, really the lower end of the oesophagus lining and the most common of the two types of ulcer
  • EGGUS Ulcers in the lower glandular region of the horses stomach

These are some of the symptoms a horse with ulcers can exhibit:

  • Resistance when ridden this can manifest in lots of different ways and maybe subtle and inconsistent right through to an obvious change of behavior. It is important to make sure there are no other underlying causes which could be contributing to a behavioral change such as a saddle fitting issue, a sore back or even a change of rider to someone less competent.
  • Feed Materials In Focus Is Feeding Corn Oil Good For Treating Or Preventing Equine Gastric Ulcers

    IS FEEDING CORN OIL GOOD FOR TREATING OR PREVENTING EQUINE GASTRIC ULCERS?

    The idea of feeding corn oil to horses with gastric ulcers goes back to a paper published in 2004 by Cargile et al. This paper is actually open access so you can read it for free . However, these authors likely got the idea from a 1987 study in rats which showed that feeding oil to rats prevented experimentally induced peptic ulcers .

    Cargile et al. found that 45ml of corn oil a day for 5 weeks decreased gastric acid secretion in response to stimulation of acid secretion with a drug that mimics the action of the hormone gastrin . The study was also weak and poorly designed as it only used 4 ponies and the order of treatments was not randomised. The problem with this study is that the authors did not gastroscope the horses to look for gastric ulcers. However, this does not seem to have stopped people promoting 45ml of corn oil a day for horses with gastric ulcers.

    NONE OF THE OIL TREATMENTS HAD ANY EFFECT ON PREVENTING OR REDUCING GASTRIC ULCERS!

    Compare this with cold pressed linseed oil: 1) cleaning, grinding, and milling 2) pressing 3) packing.

    Corn oil is one of the highest in inflammation-promoting Omega 6 fatty acids and very low in anti-inflammatory Omega 3 fatty acids. The only thing corn oil has going for it is that its relatively low in saturated fats. Bottom line? I would never feed corn oil to horses.

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

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    And Lets Not Forget One Of The Greatest Stress Factors For Horses: Clinic Stays

    Clinic stays, with unfamiliar environments and strange smells, on top of whatever is causing it to feel bad. At this point, the person who accompanies the animals also play an important role.

    As a trusted person with a calm and level-headed manner, they can relieve the animals of some stress or directly prevent it. Well, we can set aside hospital stress for now: after all, overnight stays in veterinary clinics should not account for a large part of everyday life. But transports, e.g. to events and competitions, can also develop into stressors for horses.

    Gastric Ulcers In Horses: The Important Facts Every Owner Needs To Know

    How to Keep Your Horse
  • This article has been edited and approved by Karen Coumbe MRCVS, H& Hs veterinary advisor since 1991.
  • Gastric ulcers in horses are a common problem, particular among racehorses and elite competition horses, although horses of all ages and types can have them, particularly if they have limited access to forage. Foals are also susceptible, not least because they have relatively thin gastric mucosa.

    Squamous gastric ulcers occur when the digestive stomach acids come in to contact with the upper part of the stomach lining, which does not have the same protective layer as the lower part of the stomach. Glandular ulcers affect the bottom two-thirds of the stomach, which is submerged below the acidic gastric juices.

    It can be hard to interpret the significance of gastric ulcers in the horse, as some positive cases will have no definitive clinical signs and it is important to review the whole horse health picture and not just the ulcers themselves.

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    The Same Is True For Training Which Brings Us Back To Todays Topic: Gastritis And Gastric Ulcers

    Forced gaits reduce digestion activity and blood supply, while at the same time gastric juices reach the glandless part of the horse’s stomach. This can be prevented through regular breaks between training sessions. Providing your horse a balanced diet is an important part of avoiding gastric ulcers. This brings us to feeding and rations.

    Next: Colonic Ulcers In The Hind Gut

    So, is your horse suffering from gastric ulcers or from colonic ulcers hidden in the hindgut? Be sure to come back for the next article in the Your Horse Ulcer-Free series: Colonic Ulcers in the Hindgut.

    We will conclude the series with extensive information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, so be sure to so you dont miss any of this information.

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    My Cob Is A Really Good Doer And So Is On Very Limited Hay And Basically No Grazing She Has Had Ulcers In The Past And I Know I Need To Feed As Much Fibre As Possible But Im Worried About Her Putting On Weight Im Also Concerned About Using Low Calorie Feeds As They Contain Straw And Ive Read I Shouldnt Feed It As It Can Cause Ulcers

    The minimum amount of forage your horse should ideally be consuming is 1.5% of her bodyweight. To try to promote good gut health the total daily ration should be divided into as many small offerings as possible so the period of time she isnt eating is as short as possible. Research by Luthersson and colleagues showed that if the time between eating was more than 6 hours, the risk of ulcers increased.

    Straw can be a really useful feed material for good doers as it provides chew-time without too many calories. In the study by Luthersson and colleagues, they also found that when straw was the sole source of forage it increased the incidence of ulcers. However, the important part of this finding was that straw was the only type of forage fed. There is no reason why straw cant be used alongside other forages such as alfalfa and grass hay to increase fibre intake for good doers. Feeds such as Hi-Fi Lite or Hi-Fi Molasses Free would therefore be suitable options for your horse.

    What Are Gastric Ulcers

    Gastric Ulcers in Horses

    Ulcers are painful sores that can occur along the entire digestive tract of horses but appear most commonly in the stomach and to a lesser extent in the hind gut. Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome is a scientific term that describes horses that have ulcers in their stomach.

    The stomach has two main sections, the upper squamous region and the lower glandular region. The squamous region is particularly prone to ulcers developing.

    The glandular region produces stomach acid, but also produces bicarbonate and mucous to protect the tissue in this area from the acid. These substances form a barrier that makes the lining of the glandular region less prone to ulcers.

    The squamous region does not have these natural defenses against stomach acid and accounts for 80% of all gastric ulcers.

    A horses stomach produces acid all throughout the day. This put them naturally at high risk for developing gastric ulcers, particularly during times when there is no food in the stomach to help buffer the acid.

    In the wild, horses graze up to 16 hours a day. They are normally protected from ulcers due to the continuous presence of high-fibre food in their stomach.

    However, horses kept in stall confinement with limited turnout during the day may go long stretches of time between eating. An empty stomach increases the risk of ulcers forming.

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    While At First Glance A Gastroscopy Appears To Be The Best Path To A Diagnosis Another Challenge Lurks Here

    Gastric ulcers come and go, sometimes very quickly. If the gastroscopy turns up no abnormalities, that doesnt mean everything is in perfect order.

    Gastric ulcers may have been present a few days before the examination and have since disappeared or they may occur two days after this “satisfactory” examination.

    This is exactly why it is so important to observe the horses closely for any of the symptoms mentioned above. One should also know the individual characteristics of ones healthy animals, in order to spot behaviour changes that may arise. A further challenge lies in the simplified presentation of gastric ulcers in all stages. Rats have been used for research in this area because their stomachs are similar to those of horses.

    For those who may feel somewhat overwhelmed by the information in this article, the American Association of Equine Practitioners offers a 5-point plan for the prevention of gastric ulcers. This plan is part of a white paper which is freely accessible and easy to find via Google. The author is veterinarian Beth Davis of Kansas State University.

    Causes Of Gastric Ulcers In Horses

    In a natural environment the horse will graze for up to 16hr a day, so the acidity is reduced by the forage filling the stomach almost constantly, as well as by bicarbonate in the saliva that is produced as the horse chews.

    If stabled horses have access to ad-lib hay, haylage or grass, this natural preventative process continues. But if they are fed high-concentrate diets with only limited access to forage, the acidity in the stomach increases.

    Any prolonged period without forage intake, whether due to management practices or illness, leads to increased gastric acidity and a risk of ulcers.

    Training which includes fast work, especially on an empty stomach, increases the risk of the acid splashing around, resulting in damage the upper part of the stomach.

    Stress can also be a factor.

    Research undertaken in the UK1 on the stomachs of slaughtered horses showed that even feral ponies living on the moors can develop gastric ulcers, although it was unclear whether they were living with them all the time or had developed them during the brief period between round-up and slaughter. The samples were all taken from animals slaughtered in mid-summer, when grazing was at its best and the predicted environmental stress at its lowest.

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